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Learning

Scientific Reports

These reports have been provided to help you learn more about the Gippsland Lakes and the science that helps guide their management.

 

Lake Health Report Card

The health of the Gippsland Lakes was assessed against six key environmental indicators in 2011. Indicators including: water quality, algal blooms, wetlands, birds, seagrass and fish were rated from A to E. The ratings are summarised in a report card and the information upon which the ratings were made is presented in a more comprehensive report.

Gippsland Lakes Report Card

Gippsland Lakes Report Card Full Report

Ecological Character Description for the Gippsland Lakes Ramsar site

The report provides the Ecological Character Description (ECD) for the Gippsland Lakes Ramsar site. As part of the site overview, the ECD has reviewed the Ramsar Nomination Criteria under which the site was listed as a Wetland of International Importance and the applicability of the revised and new criteria under the Convention that have been added since the site was originally listed in 1982. The report summarises the critical and supporting ecosystem components, processes and services/benefits for the site. In addition, the study sought to define the natural variability and limits of acceptable change (LAC) for the critical components, processes and services/benefits identified. Also examined are current and future threats to ecological character and ecological character changes that have been observed or documented since listing of the site in 1982.  Finally information gaps, monitoring needs and recommendations in relation to communication, education, participation and awareness messages are identified in the report.

Ecological Character Description of the Gippsland Lakes Ramsar Site – Final Report

Gippsland Lakes Ramsar Site Strategic Management Plan

The Draft Strategic Management Plan (2003) for the Gippsland Lakes Ramsar site is an integral component of a program to develop a comprehensive management framework for Victoria’s Wetlands of International Importance. The primary goal of the management framework is to maintain the ecological character of Victoria’s Ramsar sites through conservation and wise use. This report was prepared by the Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Draft Strategic Management Plan (2003)

Community reports

An informed and engaged community is best placed to support good decision-making, lead positive behaviours and practice change. As part of the Gippsland Lakes – Science, evidence and environmental citizenship project, this report investigated what the local community values about the Gippsland Lakes and catchments, and in turn, what their vision for the health of the Gippsland Lakes and catchment is, and how it relates to beneficial uses.

The community’s vision for the Gippsland Lakes and catchments

 

Algal Blooms

Algae are a diverse group of plants, mostly single celled and microscopic. In low numbers most algae are not a problem. In fact, they are an essential part of a healthy body of water as they produce oxygen and are themselves a source of food for other aquatic animals.

During blooms they can accumulate in large numbers to form visible scums. This excessive growth is associated with discolouration of the water, pungent tastes, odours and in some cases toxins that pose serious health risks to humans and animals. These risks from toxic algae range from skin irritations, dermatitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhoea and vomiting in humans to death of livestock drinking affected water supplies. Humans may also be exposed to toxins through eating contaminated seafood.

A number of different microscopic algae are involved in the algal blooms that have been affecting the Gippsland Lakes, including several species of dinoflagellates, diatoms and blue-green algae (such as Nodularia, Microcystis and Synechococcus). The different algae thrive in different conditions of nutrient availability (especially nitrogen and phosphorus), salinity, temperature, light and oxygen levels. For example, Dinoflagellates prefer high ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus; Nodularia prefer lower ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus, medium salinity and warmer temperatures; Microcystis prefer lower ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus and low salinity; and Synechococcus prefer higher nitrogen levels with higher salinities, temperature and light.

Technical Reports

Algal blooms: past, present and future by Perran Cook, Daryl Holland, John Beardall, Jonathan Smith, Todd Scicluna, Ryan Woodland, Yafei Zhu, Andrew McCowan, Peter Gell, Daniel Manville from the Water Studies Centre at Monash University. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum and the 2015 Gippsland Lakes Knowledge Forum.

The ecology of algal blooms in the Gippsland Lakes (2011 ) by Peter Day, Julian Cribb and Anne Burgi. This report summarises the findings of research into the ecology of algal blooms in the Gippsland Lakes.

Floods – Potential Impact on the Gippsland Lakes A report prepared for the Gippsland Lakes Taskforce predicting the impact of the Spring floods in 2008 upon algal species and abundance in the Lakes later that season.

Gippsland Lakes Snapshot report A report to investigate the conditions that initiated and then sustained the 2007/08 bloom of Synechococcus bloom.

Blooms of Synechococcus A report to provide background information on the biology of Synechococcus and its occurrence in blooms around the world; use the literature to suggest environmental factors that may be involved in; triggering and modulating blooms of this organism; make inferences as to possible triggers for the bloom in the Gippsland Lake system; make recommendations, as far as possible, on management.

Two hundred years of blue-green algae blooms in the Gippsland Lakes This study aimed to reconstruct bloom history at a site in Lake King known to experience Nodularia blooms in the past 30 years; and undertake a lake wide survey of d13C and d15N to evaluate these proxies as a means to identify the spatial footprint of recent Nodularia spumigena. The study concluded that toxic blue-green blooms are not a purely recent occurrence in the Gippsland Lakes but that three distinct periods of blue-green algae activity can be established.

Ecological impacts of a Nodularia bloom on nitrogen dynamics in food webs and seagrass beds The seagrass beds in the Gippsland Lakes are an important habitat for the health of the Lakes and for maintaining commercially important fisheries.  The report investigated whether an algal bloom of toxic blue‐green algae, Nodularia spumigena, could introduce large amounts of new nitrogen – an important and often hard‐to‐get nutrient for seagrasses – to the Lakes by fixing atmospheric nitrogen when it blooms.

Water quality and Lake hydrology

The water quality of the Gippsland Lakes is important for other aspects of the Lakes including the health of the seagrass, fish, wetlands, birds and algae. It is also important for recreation, tourism and other commercial uses of the Lakes.

The quality of the water in the Lakes is affected by the quality and volume of water delivered from the catchment as well as internal processes within the lake, such as stratification and nutrient releases from sediments, and the daily influence of the tide.

Technical Reports

Gippsland Lakes Water Quality Intensive Monitoring Program The report presents results of intensive water quality monitoring of the Gippsland Lakes including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a monitoring results.

EPA Gippsland Lakes BGA Monitoring Jul-Dec 2008 This report presents the water quality data and algal monitoring data collected throughout the period including a rise in the abundance of Noctiluca in late Spring.

Catchment Sourced Nitrogen Loads into the Gippsland Lakes – May 2012 The report describes the importance of nitrogen in influencing the health of the Gippsland Lakes and then provides an assessment of the main sources, sinks and pathways of nitrogen.

Changing Hydrodynamic Conditions (Impacts of Second Entrance) An assessment of the hydrodynamic, environmental, social and economic impacts of a second entrance to the Gippsland Lakes. Three potential second entrance configurations were investigated

Lake Wellington Salinity The report describes salinity inputs into Lake Wellington and develops management adaptations and options to modify the salinity in Lake Wellington.

Review of Hydrodynamic and Salinity Effects associated with the TSHD on the Gippsland Lakes An overview of hydrodynamic and salinity processes within the Gippsland Lakes and an assessment of the likely effects of the change in dredging practices on hydrologic and ecosystem processes in the lakes. The main objective of this report is to address concerns raised regarding the effects of on-going dredging at Lakes Entrance that may be having an impact on the ecological character of the Gippsland lakes, and whether the change in dredging regime since 2008 (from side cast to trailing suction hopper) has contributed to any such effect on the lakes system.

EPA Victoria monitoring in the Gippsland Lakes EPA assesses the monitoring data from five sites for water quality trends over time and the attainment of water quality objectives to ensure the protection of beneficial uses.

Water Levels and Salinity: What drives the hydrodynamics of the Gippsland Lakes? by Dr. Andrew McGowan. Variations in water levels and salinity have a dramatic impact on the health and amenity of the Gippsland Lakes. Water levels and lake salinity are both influenced by a range of drivers such as tide, wind, river inflows and ocean levels. In this presentation Andrew will outline, in simplified examples, the ways in which different forcing’s drive the level and salinity variations in the Lakes; from typical conditions to the more extreme cases of floods and droughts.  Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Fish

The Lakes support a significant commercial fishery and provide important recreational fishing opportunities. Fish have an important role in the health of the Gippsland Lakes because of their role in nutrient cycling and in the overall food web.

Freshwater flow effects on bream and perch spawning and recruitment by Greg Jenkins, University of Melbourne. Presented at the 2015 Gippsland Lakes Knowledge Forum.

Tracking the Abundance of Black Bream in the Gippsland Lakes by Simon Conron. Habitat and environmental conditions have a significant influence on the abundance of bream in the Gippsland Lakes. Recreational and commercial fishery-dependent data reflects not only the variable nature of bream abundance, but also the availability of bream to different areas within the Gippsland Lakes system. This presentation outlines the data collection methods currently being used by DEPI to assess the abundance of bream in the Gippsland Lakes, and will make recommendations on future research directions. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Gippsland Lakes Seagrass and Fish Survey The report provides a snapshot of the range of fish species and the seagrass condition monitored at permanent sampling points within the Gippsland Lakes between September 2008 and April 2012. Water quality parameters were also recorded at multiple sites.

Gippsland Lakes Black Bream Stock Assessment 2012 This report assesses the current status of black bream stocks in the Gippsland Lakes using a range of monitoring data. It provides a picture of the condition of the fishery against short and long-term trends, providing a detailed assessment of the current state of the fishery.

Water Rats

Distribution and Status of the Australian Water-Rats in the Gippsland Lakes

Dolphins

Gippsland Lakes Burrunan Dolphins: A new species in your backyard by Dr. Kate Charlton-Robb. This presentation explains the science behind the recent new dolphin species classification; information about, and the importance of, the Gippsland Lakes resident Burrunan dolphin population; information on dolphin behaviour; and raise awareness of the regulations in place when boating around dolphins through to correct disposal of rubbish and fishing waste. It also encourages community involvement through ‘citizen science’ allowing the community to log sightings, locations, behaviour, pod size etc. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

The Burrunan Dolphin in the Gippsland Lakes by Dr. Kate Charlton-Robb and Angus Henderson. Presented at the 2015 Gippsland Lakes Knowledge Forum.

Birds

Monitoring Diversity and Abundance of Wetland Birds on the Gippsland Lakes by Chris Healey. The Lakes are a refuge for almost 100 species of wetland birds, including endangered, vulnerable and migratory species. BirdLife East Gippsland regularly monitors species diversity and abundance. Some key findings on fluctuations over time are reviewed. Bird diversity and abundance are affected by a mix of local, regional and international ecological variables. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Pests

Marine Pests in the Gippsland Lakes by Nathan Bott, School of Applied Sciences RMIT University. Presented at the 2015 Gippsland Lakes Knowledge Forum.

Seagrass

Seagrass meadows provide ecologically important marine habitat. They providing food and shelter for marine fauna, as well as serving as a nursery area for juvenile fish.

Using leaf chemistry to better understand the ecology of seagrass in the Gippsland Lakes This research aimed to supplement physical seagrass monitoring that has occurred in the Gippsland Lakes since 2008 by: (i) investigating spatial patterns in seagrass leaf chemistry to provide better understanding of seagrass condition and the mechanisms influencing condition with the view to facilitate early detection of seagrass stress prior to potential decline, and; (ii) investigate the role of seagrass in the nutritional support of fish to strengthen understanding of the links between fish and seagrass habitats.

Juvenile bream and seagrass habitats in the Gippsland Lakes By Fiona Warry. Presented at the 2015 Gippsland Lakes Knowledge Forum.

Seagrass and Fish Assemblages of the Gippsland Lakes by Fiona Warry. This presentation will provide background on the nature and value of seagrass in the Gippsland Lakes; outline physical and chemical monitoring tools employed in the Lakes to assess the health of seagrass, plants and links with fish assemblages. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Shorelines

The Lake Wellington Wetlands Project by Martin Potts, Greening Australia. Presented at the 2015 Gippsland Lakes Knowledge Forum.

Shoreline geomorphology and fringing vegetation of the Gippsland Lakes

The Gippsland Lakes: management challenges posed by long-term environmental change by Paul I. Boon, Perran Cook and Ryan Woodland. The Gippsland Lakes, listed under the Ramsar Convention in 1982, have undergone chronic salinisation since the cutting in 1889 of an artificial entrance to the ocean to improve navigational access, exacerbated in the mid–late 20th century by increasing regulation and extraction of water from inflowing rivers. Both developments have had substantial ecological impacts: a marked decline in the area of reed (Phragmites australis) beds; the loss of salt-intolerant submerged taxa such as Vallisneria australis, causing a shift to a phytoplankton-dominated system in Lake Wellington; and, nearer the entrance, an expansion in the area of seagrasses. Mangroves (Avicennia marina) first appeared in the late 1980s or early 1990s. Since 1986 recurring blooms of Nodularia spumigena have led to loss of recreational amenity and to the periodic closure of recreational and commercial fisheries. Changes to hydrological and salinity regimes have almost certainly shifted the contemporary fish community away from the pre-entrance state. Rises in eustatic sea levels and increases in storm surges will exacerbate the issue of chronic salinisation. Whether or not managers choose to intervene to prevent, or at least minimise, ongoing environmental change will inevitably prove controversial, and in some cases no socially or technologically feasible solutions may exist.

Economic Value of Boating on the Gippsland Lakes 2014

Gippsland Lakes Sustainable Boating Plan and Appendices (2016) – prepared by Gippsland Ports

The Gippsland Lakes Sustainable Boating Plan (GLSBP) provides a plan for action to preserve and enhance the environmental, social and economic values of the Gippsland Lakes, while supporting growth in boating and waterway activity. The plan identifies and evaluates risks and benefits associated with boating activity on the Lakes and recommends measures to manage sustainable growth through policy, regulation, infrastructure, coordinated management and education.

Gippsland Lakes Research, Education and Discovery (RED) Centre Business Plan 2016-2020  prepared by Federation University. The concept of a Gippsland Lakes Research, Education and Discovery (RED) Centre was developed in consultation with key regional stakeholders by Federation University Australia, as consultant for the Gippsland Lakes Coordinating Committee (GLCC). The purpose of this Business Plan is to outline the framework in which the RED Centre can be best established in order to achieve its strategic objectives of integrating community, industry and local government agencies in research, education and discovery around the Gippsland Lakes.

Connecting People to Place: The Marlay Point Project’s School Engagement by Jim Mead and Martin Potts. Greening Australia has worked with over 10 schools in Gippsland over the past two years, assisting them to calculate their travel miles and related carbon emissions. This has culminated in a biodiverse carbon plantation to offset their emissions on the shores of Lake Wellington at Marlay Point. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Introducing the Teenage Eco Warrior by Andrea Savage. The Nagle College Rainforest project is a cross-curricular project that engages every student in some way, at some stage of the year, developed after Andrea attended a National Landcare Conference and saw an opportunity to develop a unique, inspiring and engaging project for teenage learners. A year 9 elective subject, Mitchell River Eco Warriors, has 200 students a year engaged in hands on and investigative learning in the field and in the college Rainforest project. This presentation will summarise these initiatives. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Creating “awe, wonder and respect” for wildlife by Jim Reside. The presentation describes ways in which people can be actively engaged in the natural environment that surrounds them. It will discuss ways of inspiring all ages to learn in a hands-on interactive and exciting way. Biodiversity is often used but little understood in the local context, yet we live in a remarkably diverse area. We teach people how to realise the diversity of their local environment. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Gippsland Lakes: The inspiration for children’s stories by Peter and Kelly Coleman. The Gippsland Lakes and its surrounds hold a mountain of inspirational stories, from family fishing trips to watching our local wildlife. Through the Enviro-Stories Education Program, children find the inspiration to capture their stories, which are then woven together into published books that others can share in. Presented at the 2013 Love Our Lakes Forum.

Historical Reports

Tidal Scouring in the Gippsland Lakes (1981) by Geoffrey M. King

2011 Gippsland Lakes Natural Assets Report Card by Dr Anthony Ladson, Dr John Tilleard. The health of the Gippsland Lakes was assessed against six key environmental indicators in 2011. Indicators including: water quality, algal blooms, wetlands, birds, seagrass and fish were rated from A to E. The ratings are summarised in a report card and the information upon which the ratings were made is presented in a more comprehensive report.

An investigation into the management options for preventing salt water intrusions into Lakes Wellington (2010) by Sinclair Knight Merz. The report describes salinity inputs into Lake Wellington and develops management adaptations and options to modify the salinity in Lake Wellington.

Lake Wellington Salintiy: Investigation of Management Options (2011) by A. R. Ladson,  M. A. Hillimacher,  and S. A. Treadwell (Sinclair Knight Merz). A discussion of the factors that determine the salinity of Lake Wellington and the available management options.

Assessment of the importance of sediment-bound nutrients (July 2003) by Andrew R. Longmore, Simon Roberts and Brett Light. The project was designed to:  measure the spatial and temporal changes in sediment nutrient flux in the Gippsland Lakes;  assess the total release of nutrients from sediments ; assess the relative importance of the sediment nutrients in contributing to algal blooms; and identify the areas and conditions under which sediment nutrient release is most likely to occur.

Blooms of Synechococcus – An analysis of the problem worldwide and possible causative factors in relation to nuisance blooms in the Gippsland Lakes (May 2008) by John Beardall. A report to provide background information on the biology of Synechococcus and its occurrence in blooms around the world; use the literature to suggest environmental factors that may be involved in; triggering and modulating blooms of this organism; make inferences as to possible triggers for the bloom in the Gippsland Lake system; make recommendations, as far as possible, on management.

CSIRO Gippsland Lakes Environmental Audit (October 1998) by Graham Harris, Graeme Batley, Ian Webster, Robert Molloy and David Fox, CSIRO. This audit aimed to gain an understanding of the issues involved regarding water quality, hydrology and catchment land use. A review of the scientific research and data collection was also done. This “state of the environment” report identifies gaps and data needs as well as potential management actions.

CSIRO Gippsland Lakes Environmental Study – Assessing Options for Improving Water Quality and Ecological Function (November 2001) by Ian T. Webster, John S. Parslow, Rodger B. Grayson, Robert P. Molloy, John Andrewartha, Pavel Sakov, Kim Seong Tan, Stephen J. Walker and Brett B. Wallace. The project intended to help managers understand the function of the Gippsland Lakes ecosystem and the factors underlying environmental issues such as water quality and algal blooms. It aimed to provide managers with the capacity to assess options to address these problems. These options included: reduction of nutrients and sediment loads in the rivers flowing into the Lakes; alterations to the river discharges to the Lakes due to further impoundment; increased irrigation extraction, or implementation of environmental flows; alteration to the flushing of the Lakes due to engineering works such as the construction of a second entrance or the deepening of the present Entrance.

Economic Impact of the 2008 Blue Green Algal Bloom on the Gippsland Tourism Industry Report – April 2009 by Bruce Connolly, Nexus Consulting (Aust) Pty Ltd, Peter Hylands, N.I.E.I.R.

Estimation of Sediment and Nutrient Loads into the Gippsland Lakes (September, 2001) by Rodger Grayson, Kim Seong Tan & Andrew Western. This report summarises the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) loads for all inputs into the Gippsland Lakes. The loads were required as input to drive the CSIRO ecological model and were produced at a daily level for the period from 1975-1999, and used in ecological modelling for the period July 1995-June 1999.

Examination of Water Balance Scenarios for Locks Across Lakes Entrance and McLennans Strait (2000) by CSIRO. An examination of the implications for water levels within the Lakes for locks constructed across McLennans Strait and across Lakes Entrance.

First-cut Estimation for Seepage across Bunga Arm Barrier (2000) by CSIRO. A simple preliminary investigation of the possibility of seepage across the Bunga Arm barrier.

Fish assemblages and seagrass condition of the Gippsland Lakes: 2010 by F.Y. Warry and J.S. Hindell, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. This study provides a snapshot of fish assemblage structure and seagrass ‘condition’ within the Gippsland Lakes during September 2008, April 2009 and April 2010.

Fish assemblages and seagrass condition of the Gippsland Lakes: 2011 by F.Y. Warry and J.S. Hindell, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. This study provides a snapshot of fish assemblage structure and seagrass ‘condition’ within the Gippsland Lakes during September 2008, April 2009, April 2010 and April 2011.

Fish assemblages and seagrass condition of the Gippsland Lakes: 2012 by F.Y. Warry and J.S. Hindell, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. The report provides a snapshot of the range of fish species and the seagrass condition monitored at permanent sampling points within the Gippsland Lakes between September 2008 and April 2012. Water quality parameters were also recorded at multiple sites.

Further Analysis of Sediment Core Samples Collected in the Gippsland Lakes (2000) by CSIRO. This report extends the analysis of data collected by Longmore (2000a) to support the components of the Gippsland Lakes Environmental Study concerned with sediments. The objectives were to: 1. Estimate pore-water mixing rates that can be applied to the full Lakes’ biogeochemcial Model; 2. Estimate sedimentation rates throughout Lakes; 3. Assess the likely extent of continued release of P and N from the stored sediment pool after input loads of these nutrients to the Lakes are reduced.

Hydrodynamic Modelling (December, 2000) by Stephen Walker and John Andrewartha. This report describes the development, calibration and application of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Gippsland Lakes, as part of the Gippsland Lakes Environmental Study.

Importance of catchment-sourced nitrogen loads as a factor in determining the health of the Gippsland Lakes (2012) by Dr Anthony Ladson. The report describes the importance of nitrogen in influencing the health of the Gippsland Lakes and then provides an assessment of the main sources, sinks and pathways of nitrogen.

Importance of Sediment Nutrients in the Gippsland Lakes – A report for the Gippsland Task Force. (2006) by Andrew R.Longmore and Simon Roberts. Measurements of the nutrient inventory and nutrient flux rates of sediments of the Gippsland Lakes are drawn principally from two studies: Longmore (2000) and Roberts et al. (2003).

Integrated Model Development and Calibration (August, 2001) by John Parslow, Pavel Sakov, John Andrewartha.

Integrated Model Scenarios (August, 2001) by John Parslow, Pavel Sakov, and John Andrewartha.

Interactions between phytoplankton dynamics, nutrient loads and the biogeochemistry of the Gippsland Lakes (2008) by Perran Cook, Daryl Holland and Andrew Longmore. This report reviews the behaviour of nutrients (N and P) in the Lakes and the control these nutrient have over phytoplankton blooms. Based on the evidence available, a conceptual model outlining the processes involved in the formation of blue-green algal blooms in the Gippsland Lakes has been developed.

Isotherm Analysis of Sediment Samples and Water Column Samples Collected in the Gippsland Lakes (2000 and 2001) by CSIRO. The analysis is intended to provide the information on P adsorption behaviour necessary for the implementation of the biogeochemical model to the Gippsland Lakes as part of the Gippsland Lakes Environmental Study.

Pre-European Load Estimates into the Gippsland Lakes (2001) by CSIRO. Estimates of pre-European loads of sediment, total nitrogen and total phosphorous into the Gippsland Lakes.

RT2: Changing Hydrodynamic Conditions (Impacts of Second Entrance) (2005) by Sinclair Knight Merz. An assessment of the hydrodynamic, environmental, social and economic impacts of a second entrance to the Gippsland Lakes. Three potential second entrance configurations were investigated.

Sedimentation in the Gippsland Lakes as determined from sediment cores. (2006) by Gary Hancock and Tim Pietsch. Four sediment cores collected from the Gippsland Lakes have been examined to determine the rate and history of sediment accumulation.

Sensitivity analysis of the CSIRO model for the Gippsland Lakes. (2004) by Nicky Grigg, Ian Webster (CSIRO Land and Water) and John Parslow, Pavel Sakov (CSIRO Marine Research).

Targeted monitoring of algal bloom potential in the Gippsland Lakes 2010-2011 by Daryl Holland, Perran Cook and John Beardall – Monash University. A critical sequence of events leading to summer Nodularia blooms is proposed following a detailed review of water quality data in the Gippsland Lakes.

Impacts of Bushfires on Water Quality in the Gippsland Lakes: Exploring Options for Mitigation (2008) by Sinclair Knight Mertz. This report explores the impact of bushfires on water quality in the Gippsland Lakes and options for reducing those impacts.

Quantifying the water quality benefits of erosion and sediment control practices on unsealed forest roads. (2005) by Dr Gary Sheridan and Mr Philip Noske, School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, the University of Melbourne. The aims of this research were to  1. Improve our understanding of unsealed forest roads as a source of sediment and nutrients to the Gippsland Lakes; 2. Estimate the magnitude of the contribution of forest roads, in the context of natural background loads from forests; and 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of road-related remedial measures for sediment and nutrient load reductions.

Sources of sediment and nutrients to the Gippsland Lakes: Preliminary modelling results. (2005) by Scott Wilkinson, Gary Hancock, Arthur Read and Briohny Davey CSIRO. The study’s aim is to determine the source of sediment and nutrients delivered to the Gippsland Lakes.

Sources of sediment and nutrients to the Gippsland Lakes assessed using catchment modelling and sediment tracers. (2007) by Scott Wilkinson, Gary Hancock and Arthur Read CSIRO. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the sources of sediment and nutrients in the Gippsland Lakes catchments both spatially by construction sediment for various sub-catchments, and by quantifying the contribution of various erosion processes delivering the sediment to the stream network.

A report into the nutrient cycling and phytoplankton population dynamics in the Gippsland Lakes (2010) by Daryl Holland, Perran Cook, John Beardall and Andrew Longmore. This study was initiated to monitor the factors controlling phytoplankton growth and nutrient recycling following an unprecedented input of nitrogen and subsequent cyanobacterial bloom (Synechococcus spp.) in 2007-2008.

Community Awareness Survey: Health of the Gippsland Lakes Perceptions & Marketing Survey by Gippsland Lakes & Catchment Taskforce.

Gippsland Lakes ‘Snapshot’ – Nutrient Cycling and phytoplankton population dynamics (2009) by Daryl Holland and Perran Cook. In November 2007 a cyanobacterial bloom occurred over the entire Gippsland Lakes and persisted through much of 2008. This report aimed to identify what initiated this bloom, and what led to Synechococcus dominating for such a sustained period.

Protocols for the optimal measurement of Nutrient Loads. (2005) by Prof. David Fox, Dr. Teri Etchells and Dr. Tan.

Index of Gippsland Lakes Health – Stage 1. (2006) by Paul Boon – Dodo Environmental. A framework of an integrated monitoring program to monitor the ecological health of the Lakes.

November 2008 Gippsland floods – potential impact on the Gippsland Lakes (2009) by Daryl Holland and Perran Cook. This study assessed the nutrient loads entering the lakes as a result of these floods, and compared these with loads calculated over the past 30 years  to assess whether there is an increased risk of algal blooms because of this event.

BMPs for reducing phosphorus loads to the Gippsland Lakes (2006) by Tony Ladson, Monash University and John Tilleard, Moroka Pty Ltd. This paper reports on a project that used an expert panel approach to estimate the likely reduction in Phosphorous loads to the Gippsland Lakes that could be achieved by implementing “best management practices” (BMPs) for activities in the catchment.

Prioritising nutrient reduction for the Gippsland Lakes and catchments Part 1 Loads and Sources (2006) by Prof. Rodger Grayson – Catchment to Sea Pty. Ltd.

Priority nutrient reduction activities for the Gippsland Lakes and catchments Part 2 Application of BMPs to reduce nutrient loads (Sept. 2006) by Peter Cottingham, Rodger Grayson, Tony Ladson and John Tilleard.

Refining the Gippsland Lakes Future Directions and Actions Plan (Aug. 2008) by Peter Cottingham.

Report on the Gippsland Lakes INFFER Analysis by Anna Roberts, David PannellBC, Peter Cottingham, Graeme Doole and Olga Vigiak. An INFFER analysis was conducted in partnership with the Gippsland Lakes Task Force (GLTF) to assess the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of achieving phosphorus (P) reduction targets.

Victorian Marine Habitat Database Gippsland Lakes Seagrass Mapping by Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute (MAFRI) for Fisheries Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE).

Part A – An Assessment of Seagrass Changes in the Gippsland Lakes Through a Review of Historic Aerial Photographs

Part B – An Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Seagrass in the Gippsland Lakes